Music of the Ottoman Court

Makam, Composition and the Early Ottoman Instrumental Repertoire

Feldman, Walter

(Intercultural Music Studies Vol.: 10)


Between 1600 and 1750 Ottoman Turkish music developed the genres and forms that were directly antecedent to the surviving Turkish art music, yet its relationship to this modern music is shrouded in myth. This work is the first attempt to bring together contemporaneous notations, musical treatises, biographics, literary sources, travellers' accounts and iconography to present a synthetic picture of the early modern phrase of Turkish art music.


Contents:

Preface
Introduction
Turkish Classical Music und Ottoman Music
Ethnomusicology and History in Ottoman Turkey
The Strucuring of the Book
The Major Sources for Ottoman Music 1550-1750

Part I Musicians and Performance Chapter 1-1 Professionalism and the Music of the Ottoman Court The Ottomans and the Turco-Mongol Courtly Heritage
The Emergence of Ottoman Court Music
Vocalists and Instrumentalists
The Geographical Origin of the Musicians and Location of Musical Centers
Changes in the Ruling Class and in the Organization of Music in the Palace
Unfree Musicians The kullar
The Persians (Acemler)
The "Franks" and Other Male Slaves
The Slave-Women
Free Musicians in the Palace Service and the Bureaucracy The ‘ilmîye (‘ulemâ)
Chapter 1-2 Professionalism and the Music of the Ottoman Court: Dervishes and Turkish Art Music The Mevleviye The Mevlevi Conception of Music
The Mevlevis and Ottoman Court Music
Music in the Other Sunni tarikats
Conclusion
Chapter 2 Instruments and Instrumentalists Sources for the Instrumentation of Ottoman Music
Organ und Genre
The Ottoman Court Ensemble of the 16th Century The kemance
The 'd
The kopuz
The ney
The ceng
The kanun
The Ottoman Ensemble from the 17th to the Mid-18th Century The kemance/keman
The ney
The tanbur
The Origin of the Ottoman tanbur
The Ottoman tanbur in the 18th Century
The ceng
The kanun
The santur
The musikar r/miskal Social Contexts of the Turkish Lutes
Conclusion
Chapter 3 The Ottoman Cyclical Concert-Formats Fasil und Ayin The Structure of the Ottoman fasil The fasl-i szende Structure of the fasl-i sazende
The Mevlevi ayin
Part II Makam Chapter 1 The General Scale of 17th-Century Ottoman Music Nomenclature of Scale Degree and Mode
Cantemir’s General Scale
The Problem of the Note segah
Saba, ‘Uzzal, Beyati, Hisar
Conclusion
A Note on Symbols
Chapter 2 Makam and Terkib Other Modal Entities
Terkib and su’be Structures
The Terkib in the 18th Century
Chapter 3 Melodic Progression Seyir in Compositions
Cantemir’s Terminology for Melodic Progression
Hizir Aga and Harutin
Chapter 4 The Taksim and Modulation The Generic Nature and Origin of the taksim
Turkish and Persian "taksim" in Cantemir’s Treatise
Modulation and the taksim Modulation and the küll-i külliyat Genre
Conclusion
Part III Pesrev and Sema’i Chapter 1 The Pesrev/Pishrow The pesrev as Genre
Origin and Stucure of the pesrev/pishrow
Generic Variation Within the Ottoman pesrev

Chapter 2 The Ottoman pesrev Periodization of the Turkish pesrev
Factors Leading to Change in the Formal Structure of the pesrev Usul, Tempo, Melodic Density
Modulation and Large Scale Form
Terkib and seyir
Conclusion
Chapter 3 Pesrevs and Analyses Period 1 (1500-1550) The Persians (‘Acemler)
Osman Pasa el-’Atik
Period 2 (1550-1600)
Period 3 (1600-1650)
Period 4 (1650-1690)
Neyzen Ali Hoca
The pesrevs of Cantemir
Muhayyer muhammes
Buselik-’Asirani berefs an
Conclusion
Chapter 4 The 17th-Century Persian Pesrev Pesrevs and Analyses Chapter 5 Transmission of the Ottoman Pes rev Repertoire Transmission of the pesrev during the 17 Century: Pesrevs and Analyses
The nazire
Conclusion
Transmission of the pesrev in the 18th Century Fonton
Kevseri
Chapter 6 The Instrumental Sema’i Sema ’i-i sazende in the 17th Century
Periodization of the sema’i-i sazende / saz sema’i
Analysis of the 17th-Century sema’i Documents
Sema’i-i lenk / aksak sema’i
Transformation of the Old sema’i
Conclusion
Chapter 7 Conclusion The Departure of Turkey from the "Persianate" Musical Sphere
The New Ottoman Style of the 18 Century
Notes
Bibliography
Index





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